By D.R. Philpott, R.H. Barnard
Airplane Flight offers actual actual, instead of mathematical, descriptions of the rules of plane flight. This renowned textual content provides mechanical engineering and aeronautical engineering scholars an invaluable creation to the topic. The fourth version has been up-to-date to incorporate very important fresh advancements reminiscent of unmanned air cars and the low orbit space-plane
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Extra resources for Aircraft Flight: A description of the physical principles of aircraft flight
The formation of starting and stopping vortices is described further in the next chapter. QXD 14/9/09 15:20 Page 43 DOWNWASH AND ITS IMPORTANCE Fig. 7 Downwash The trailing vortices produce a downward flow of air or ‘downwash’ behind the wing Downwash and its importance The trailing vortices are not just a mildly interesting by-product of wing lift. Their inﬂuence on the ﬂow extends well beyond their central core, modifying the whole ﬂow pattern. In particular, they alter the ﬂow direction and speed in the vicinity of the wing and tail surfaces.
The swept wing, therefore, tends to have a poorer ratio of lift to drag than an equivalent straight wing. Swept wings and straight wings are inﬂuenced differently by the downwash effect of the trailing vorticity. We can explain this by use of the Lanchester– Prandtl vortex line model. Referring to Fig. 19 we see that an inboard line of trailing vorticity starting at A, will have more effect at C, than an equal strength outboard line starting at B. The nearest part of the outboard line is simply further away than that of the inboard line.
Their inﬂuence is also evident in the surface ﬂow patterns shown in Fig. 22. This type of separated vortex ﬂow represents an alternative method of lift generation. The air speed in the vortex is high, and so the pressure is low. QXD 14/9/09 15:18 Page 24 24 LIFT Fig. 20 Conical vortex lift The strong conical vortex that forms over the leading edge of a slender delta wing can sometimes be seen by the vapour condensation that it produces. Because of the high angle of attack required on landing and take-off, the nose of concorde had to be lowered to enable the pilot to see the runway (Photo courtesy of British Aerospace (Bristol)) lift is still produced by exposing the upper surface to a lower pressure than the underside, but the low pressure on the upper surface is now produced mainly as a consequence of the vortex motion above it.
Aircraft Flight: A description of the physical principles of aircraft flight by D.R. Philpott, R.H. Barnard