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The test specimen was prepared by pouring sand through air into a tilted former. In this way, it was possible to vary the direction of the bedding of the particles which was normal to the direction of deposition. A clear stress±strain anisotropy was measured, the strain required to mobilize a given strength being greater for the bedding aligned in the vertical major principal stress direction than for the conventional case of the bedding aligned horizontally in the test specimen. Parallel tests were carried out by Arthur and Phillips (1972) in a conventional triaxial cell testing a prismatic specimen with lubricated ends.

5(b)). The curve of 4vol (volumetric strain) versus  becomes steeper, indicating that the rate of dilation (or expansion) d4vol ad is increasing. The slope of the curve reaches a maximum at P, but with continued shear strain the curve becomes less steep until at C it is horizontal. When the curve is horizontal d4vol ad is zero, indicating that dilation has ceased. The peak shear stress at P in Fig. 5(a) coincides with the maximum rate of dilation at P in Fig. 5(b). The steady-state shear stress at C in Fig.

6(b)) or high effective stresses, depending on where the `best ®t' straight line is drawn. ) 2. The designer of a geotechnical engineering structure cannot guarantee that the peak strength will be uniformly mobilised everywhere it is needed at the same time. It is much more likely that only some soil elements will reach their peak strength ®rst. If any extra strain is imposed on these elements, they will fail in a brittle manner as their strength falls towards the critical value. In doing so, they will shed load to their neighbours, which will then also become overstressed and fail in a brittle manner.

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Airbus A320 SOP 07Descent


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