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In such a paradigm, the listener is usually presented with two successive stimuli, one comprised of entirely harmonic components, the other with a mistuned harmonic. The task of the listener is to indicate which one of the two stimuli contains the mistuned harmonic. 1. Group mean event–related brain potentials elicited by complex sounds that had all harmonics in tune or had the second harmonic shifted upward by 4% or 16% of its original value. The gray rectangle illustrates sound duration. S refers to stimulus onset.

For example, an increase in spatial separation between two concurrent messages improves performance in identifying the task–relevant message (Bronkhorst and Plomp, 1988, 1992, Spieth, Curtis, and Webster, 1954, Treisman, 1964). 3. Contour maps showing the amplitude distribution of the MMN and ORN within the same group of participants. The MMN was elicited by short duration deviant sounds whereas the ORN was recorded from complex sounds with the third harmonic mistuned by 16% of its original value.

The darker grey indicates greater negativity. Note the difference in the orientation of the contour lines between the two maps over the temporal lobe. , 1954). Psychophysical studies have also shown that when listeners are presented with two different vowels simultaneously, the identification rate improves with increasing separation between the fundamental frequencies of the two vowels (Assmann and Summerfield, 1990, 1994, Chalikia and Bregman, 1989, Culling and Darwin, 1993). These behavioural studies highlight the importance of differences in the perceptual separation of competing voices.

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Airbus A320 SOP 03Taxi and Before Takeoff


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