By Henny Klein
Adverbs of measure shape an exciting a part of the lexicon: a variety of, multiform and everchanging. in addition they express an outstanding kind in distribution. during this learn, the features of adverbs of measure are investigated from a semantic standpoint. the focus is on Dutch, yet earlier experiences approximately English and German adverbs of measure are used to check with and to construct on.
The e-book starts off with an creation on grading and gradability, and a class of the adverbs in response to the measure they convey. subsequent, the various lexical assets from which the adverbs emerge and the method of grammaticalization are mentioned. the most a part of the e-book is dedicated to semantic regulations at the use of adverbs of measure, at the one hand regulations about the changed components, nevertheless these about the surroundings. subject matters contain absoluteness as opposed to gradability, confident as opposed to damaging evaluate, the strengthening of negation, polarity sensitivity, the logical houses of the adverbs themselves, and regulations to reduplication and stacking.
Besides the most textual content, 3 case reviews are awarded within which the pecularities of a few of the adverbs are investigated extensive, to teach extra intimately to complexities in their distribution. The appendix offers an outline of Dutch adverbs of measure.
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Extra info for Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages
Bolinger's NP-internal test (1972: 94), as presented in (44), is not conclusive either for a grading function in Dutch. (44) a. * She is a surely/ certainly/ honestly pretty girl Dutch modal adverbs can occur rather freely in NPs. In (45) some examples are given. This form of use may have developed out of a interjective use of the modal adverb, but now such an adverb is felt to be an integrated part of the NP. (45) a. b. Hij deed een echt volkomen onmogelijk voorstel 'He made a really totally impossible proposal' Ik was verbaasd over dit ongetwijfeld zeer royale aanbod 'I was surprised at this undoubtedly very generous offer' In fact, even in English a modal adverb may occur within an NP, as demon strated in (46).
A blunder as big as that I never made Note that all foregoing examples are exclamative. In some other construc tions, an identifying function may be more plausible, unless intonation indicates otherwise (28). (28) Ik ken iemand die zo'n blunder begaan heeft 'I know someone who made such a blunder' In a predicative position, zo'n and een dergelijke may express a high degree as well (29a), just like such a. The deictics can furthermore be used as cataphora, identifying the high degree by its results (29b).
G. respect instead of love) may introduce another scale. I conclude that only the corroborating modal adverbs may develop a grading function. We may discern adverbs that stress the truth of a statement 46 CHAPTER 2 directly such as truly, and those that express the certainty of the speaker (surely, certainly). Some modal adverbs have extended their function even more in the direction of grading: they can be used to modify a specific degree word directly, and as such they can occur in syntactic positions that are excluded for sentence modifiers.
Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages by Henny Klein