By Len Doyal
Rejecting trendy subjectivist and cultural relativist techniques, this crucial e-book argues that people have common and goal wishes for health and wellbeing and autonomy and a correct to their optimum delight. The authors enhance a method of social signs to teach what such optimization may suggest in perform and determine the files of quite a lot of built and underdeveloped economies in assembly their electorate' wishes
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Additional info for A Theory of Human Need
In a more complex way, this too leads back not only to certain values which challenge individual preferences. but to values which embody notions of serious harm and need. The argument is that individuals and/or collectives will be better off in the long run - that their interests will be better served - if they prefer capitalism to some other system (Griffin. 1986, pp. 31-7). But implicit in this argument is some objective goal which is not in itself a matter of rational preference. For any preference which contradicts the goal.
Next in line for adults - and even more for children - will be the requirements for a safe, orderly, predictable world. When these goals have been achieved, higher needs dominate. and so on until finally an open-ended motivation for emotional and intellectual fulfilment takes over (Maslow, 1943, pp. 370--96). In the remainder of this book we shall not use 'need' in this sense, for two reasons. First, even if we accept Maslow's typology as exhaustive - which is far from obvious - its strict temporal sequencing of the motivations in question is simply false.
A more guarded form of relativism has been put forward by others who search for a healthier balance between the state and the individual in both capitalist and state socialist societies. In his writings on civil society, for example, Keane envisages many groups counterposing their individuality - their differently defined needs against the centrality of the state and believes this to be essential for the well being of all. But like Laclau and Mouffe, he also explicitly embraces the cultural relativism that results from rejecting any universalisable link between such definitions: To defend relativism requires a social and political stance which is thoroughly modern.
A Theory of Human Need by Len Doyal