By Graeme Barker
This broad research files the long term human cost historical past of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, from its earliest career within the Stone Age correct as much as the current day. Integrating the thoughts of archaeology, heritage and geography, Barker exhibits how payment within the Valley is inextricably associated with the parallel tale of panorama improvement, his topics and matters together with: methods to Mediterranean panorama heritage; the fashionable panorama; Methodologies of the Biferno Valley Survey; The usual panorama and its evolution; Early prehsitoric cost; the 1st agricultural groups; Iron Age chiefdoms (c.1000-500 BC); Pentri, Frentani and the beginnings of urbanization (c.500--80 BC); Roman cities and territories (c.80 BC-600 AD); The evolution of hilltop villages (AD 600-1500); Feudalism and the `Southern query' (AD 1500 to the present).
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Extra resources for A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley
The main track winds for some miles through a series of hills so barren and repulsive to the eye, that I could fancy myself among the clay mountains of Basilicata' (Craven, 1838: 139). Some 20 kilometres from the sea, the Biferno river passes though a narrow gap in the hills at the site of the Ponte del Liscione. In the late 1960s and early 1970s the bridge was replaced by a dam almost 500 metres wide by 60 metres high, one of the largest in Europe, upstream of which there is now a lake, the Guardialfiera lake, some 8 kilometres in length.
Certainly the area was known to have been occupied in classical times. Molise, at least the inland mountainous part of it, was known to have been the heartland of Samnium, the homeland of the Samnite tribes that the ancient historians describe as the most deadly SELECTING THE STUDY REGION 13 Fig. 4 Central-southern Italy: the natural landscape, the modern political regions, and places mentioned in Chapter One. and unforgiving enemies of the Romans in their attempt to establish hegemony over the peninsula during the first three centuries BC.
The development of vineyards has been particularly dramatic: to prepare the ground for the new roots it is ploughed down to over a metre's depth with a colossal share, and a lattice of concrete posts then established to support the vine rows, set at an appropriate distance to allow for mechanized cultivation in between. Apart from the dramatic increase in erosion rates caused by the new technologies (Chapters Four and Thirteen), the changing nature of land use in the valley during the 1970s had a major influence on the development of the archaeological survey.
A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley by Graeme Barker