By Zaira Khalilova.
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Additional info for A grammar of Khwarshi
GEN1’ The stressed infinitival suffix -a stands in opposition to the non-stressed imperative suffix -o/-a. g. ha[n-á ’bite-INF’ há[n-a ‘bite-IMP’ susan-á ‘move-INF’ súsan-a ‘move-IMP’ Sus-á ‘sleep-INF’ Sús-o ‘sleep-IMP’ ]anq’idok’-á ‘stifle-INF’ ]ánq’idok’-o ‘stifle-IMP’ x^Irday-á ‘snore-INF’ x^j wrday-a ‘snore-IMP’ Imnajšvili (1963: 22) claims that the stress can trigger phonological changes within the word such as reduction, though this question has not been fully studied. 6. 1. Use of the epenthetic semivowel -y- Vocalic clustering is not allowed, and the epenthetic semivowel -y- is used at a morpheme boundary to avoid hiatus.
E. when the General tense and questions are formed, and they also occur under vowel contraction. Apart from these processes, long vowels do not occur in lexical words except for one word e[Uu ‘hen’ with a long nasalized vowel. The General tense is formed by the lengthening of the root vowel or insertion of a suffix with long vowels (cf. g. QUES’ (cf. 13). g. ’ (cf. 2). g. meeSa ‘to moo’, ^e[^e[Sa ‘to bray’. g. mada-]ul ‘outside-VERS’ m^g-]ul5 ‘outside-VERS’ žoho ‘behind’ žeb-]ul ‘behind-VERS’6 žohoq’^emul ‘backwards’ žeq’^ul Long vowels can also be nasalized except for /i/ and /I/.
E[S’u ‘lid’ a[c ‘door’ e[xu ‘river’ hu[ho ‘chick’ he[še ‘book’ e[ga ‘to fall’ o[g ‘axe’ e[š ‘apple’ e[du ‘inside’ hi[he[ ‘pear’ hu[ne ‘road’ o[c’o ‘ten’ Long vowels Long vowels are restricted in distribution as they almost always occur in closed syllables. Long vowels are always in stressed position. e. when the General tense and questions are formed, and they also occur under vowel contraction. Apart from these processes, long vowels do not occur in lexical words except for one word e[Uu ‘hen’ with a long nasalized vowel.
A grammar of Khwarshi by Zaira Khalilova.