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By by Janessa L. Brown.

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Additional resources for A brief sketch of Urama grammer with special consideration of particles marking agency, aspect, and modality

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Pig bite DEC The dog bit the pig. The verb is high in action (Kinesis); it is a volitional act (Volitionality) – the dog certainly isn’t biting by accident; it is an affirmative action (Affirmation); the object is highly affected (Affectedness of Object) – the pig is no longer being chased; and it is a single occurrence (Punctuality). We can consider this clause to be highly transitive, and thus the subject is marked with ro. Conversely a sentence without the ro marker should display more of the low transitivity 27 I am referring especially to the typical ditransitive ema’ai ‘give’ 28 One of the ditransitive examples that did not have the ergative marker had a habitual verb, causing it to be durative rather than punctiliar, which according to the Transitivity Scale is less transitive.

MS 14b) Applying the same criteria used to analyze the auxiliary a’a, it is possible to analyze dio as an auxiliary as well. 3, we discussed the possibility of dio being a derivational verb suffix, changing punctual verbs to have a continual meaning. It is likely that dio acts as an auxiliary. In the verbal paradigm dio occurs as a variant of the near past and the far past. 19 Dio can take verbal morphology. The va particle, having imperfective aspect, can attach to dio and creates vadio, glossed as ‘often’ and analyzed as an adverb previously.

1. The number markers –do and –mo may occur directly following the root, or they may occur directly following the auxiliary. I have placed a column for the auxiliary to show where it would occur in the sequence of verbal morphology. The intermediate past tense shown in this position class chart, the morphemes ra and du, are not found in the narratives analyzed for this thesis, so I will not discuss them. 3. I suggest if ra as an intermediate past tense marker is found, there would be a separate morpheme that is the clausal subordinator.

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A brief sketch of Urama grammer with special consideration of particles marking agency, aspect, and modality by by Janessa L. Brown.


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