By Jim Mesko, Joe Sewell, Don Greer
Built out of the DB-7 sequence of sunshine bombers. A-20s, Havocs & DB-7s observed motion in virtually each significant theatre of operation in the course of WWII. Used as a gentle bomber, flooring strafer & nightfighter. Over a hundred pictures, forty aspect drawings, three pages of scale drawings, thirteen colour work, 50 pages.
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Extra info for A-20 Havoc in action No 144
While still not extremely strong, after oxidation the mesophase fiber can be handled if the tow is sufficiently large. Thus, the ovens used to carbonize and graphitize mesophase fibers (fig. 11) are similar to those used to process PAN precursor fibers. The process used to surface-treat and size mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers is similar to that used for PAN-based fibers. However, because pitch-based fibers are less reactive to surface oxidation, more severe reaction conditions are used during surface treatment.
Because carbon fibers fail by brittle fracture, this analysis also will provide insight as to how much, and how readily, the physical properties of these fibers can be modified. Effect of Microstructure on Tensile Properties of Carbon Fibers Assuming that the brittle fracture mechanism proposed by Reynolds and Sharp (see Johnson, ref. 13) applies, the results of microstructural studies might explain the differences in strength and modulus of pitch-based and PAN-based carbon fibers. Given the strength and modulus of any carbon fiber, the Griffith relationship (ref.
After final heat treatment, most PAN-based carbon fibers are given a surface treatment to improve their bonding with polymeric matrix materials. Although surface treatment results in some roughening of the surface, its primary effect is to increase the concentration of oxygenated groups on the fiber surface. Various 25 CC Materials and Composites techniques can accomplish this: exposing the carbon fiber to gases (such as air or carbon dioxide) at elevated temperatures, submerging the fiber in sodium hypochlorite or nitric acid solutions, or electrolytically etching the fiber.
A-20 Havoc in action No 144 by Jim Mesko, Joe Sewell, Don Greer